# Publications

**Authors: ** Grzegorz Czelusta and Jakub Mielczarek

**Year:** 2021

In loop quantum gravity approach to Planck scale physics, quantum geometry is represented by superposition of the so-called spin network states. In the recent literature, a class of spin networks promising from the perspective of quantum simulations of quantum gravitational systems has been studied. In this case, the spin network states are represented by graphs with four-valent nodes, and two dimensional intertwiner Hilbert spaces (qubits of space) attached to them. In this article, construction of quantum circuits for a general intertwiner qubit is presented. The obtained circuits are simulated on 5-qubit (Yorktown) and 15-qubit (Melbourne) IBM superconducting quantum computers, giving satisfactory fidelities. The circuits provide building blocks for quantum simulations of complex spin networks in the future. Furthermore, a class of maximally entangled states of spin networks is introduced. As an example of application, attempts to determine transition amplitudes for a monopole and a dipole spin networks with the use of superconducting quantum processor are made.

**Authors: **Grzegorz Czelusta, Jakub Mielczarek

**Year:** 2021

An accumulation of theoretical evidence contribute to the picture of gravity as a manifestation of quantum entanglement in a certain many-body quantum system. This is in particular expresses in the ER=EPR conjecture, which relates gravitational Einstein-Rosen (ER) bridge with the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) quantum entangled pairs or, more generally, with the so-called Thermofield Double State. In this letter, the ER=EPR conjecture is employed to introduce unitary quantum teleportation protocol, which \emph{recycles} the entanglement forming traversable generalization of the Einstein-Rosen bridge. In consequence, the wormhole remains unaffected by the quantum teleportation. Furthermore, it is shown that the protocol guarantees the unconditional security of the quantum communication. Performance of the protocol is demonstrated in a simple setting with the use of 5-qubit Santiago IBM quantum computer, giving fidelities above the 2/3 classical limit for a representative set of teleported states. Security of the protocol has been supported by experimental studies performed with the use of the noisy quantum processor. Possible generalization of the protocol, which may have relevance in the context of macroscopic gravitational configurations, is also considered.

**Authors: **Jakub Mielczarek

**Year:** 2021

The article addresses the possibility of implementing spin network states, used in the loop quantum gravity approach to Planck scale physics on an adiabatic quantum computer. The discussion focuses on applying currently available technologies and analyzes a concrete example of a D-Wave machine. It is introduced a class of simple spin network states which can be implemented on the Chimera graph architecture of the D-Wave quantum processor. However, extension beyond the currently available quantum processor topologies is required to simulate more sophisticated spin network states. This may inspire new generations of adiabatic quantum computers. A possibility of simulating loop quantum gravity is discussed, and a method of solving a graph non-changing scalar (Hamiltonian) constraint with the use of adiabatic quantum computations is proposed. The presented results establish a basis for the future simulations of Planck scale physics, specifically quantum cosmological configurations, on quantum annealers.