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Completeness for arbitrary finite dimensions of ZXW-calculus, a unifying calculus

### Completeness for arbitrary finite dimensions of ZXW-calculus, a unifying calculus

## ABSTRACT

The ZX-calculus is a universal graphical language for qubit quantum computation, meaning that every linear map between qubits can be expressed in the ZX-calculus. Furthermore, it is a complete graphical rewrite system: any equation involving linear maps that is derivable in the Hilbert space formalism for quantum theory can also be derived in the calculus by rewriting. It has widespread usage within quantum industry and academia for a variety of tasks such as quantum circuit optimisation, error-correction, and education. The ZW-calculus is an alternative universal graphical language that is also complete for qubit quantum computing. In fact, its completeness was used to prove that the ZX-calculus is universally complete. This calculus has advanced how quantum circuits are compiled into photonic hardware architectures in the industry. Recently, by combining these two calculi, a new calculus has emerged for qubit quantum computation, the ZXW-calculus. Using this calculus, graphical-differentiation, -integration, and -exponentiation were made possible, thus enabling the development of novel techniques in the domains of quantum machine learning and quantum chemistry. Here, we generalise the ZXW-calculus to arbitrary finite dimensions, that is, to qudits. Moreover, we prove that this graphical rewrite system is complete for any finite dimension. This is the first completeness result for any universal graphical language beyond qubits.