We numerically estimate the divergence of several two-vertediagrams that contribute to the radiative corrections for the Lorentzian EPRL spin foam propagator. We compute the amplitudes as functions of a homogeneous cutoff over the bulk quantum numbers, fixed boundary data, and different Immirzi parameters, and find that for a class of two-vertediagrams, those with fewer than siinternal faces are convergent. The calculations are done with the numerical framework sl2cfoam-next.
Over the past decade, a number of quantum processes have been proposed which are logically consistent, yet feature a cyclic causal structure. However, there is no general formal method to construct a process with an exotic causal structure in a way that ensures, and makes clear why, it is consistent. Here we provide such a method, given by an extended circuit formalism. This only requires directed graphs endowed with Boolean matrices, which encode basic constraints on operations. Our framework (a) defines a set of elementary rules for checking the validity of any such graph, (b) provides a way of constructing consistent processes as a circuit from valid graphs, and (c) yields an intuitive interpretation of the causal relations within a process and an explanation of why they do not lead to inconsistencies. We display how several standard examples of exotic processes, including ones that violate causal inequalities, are among the class of processes that can be generated in this way; we conjecture that this class in fact includes all unitarily extendible processes.
The notion of a joint system, as captured by the monoidal (a.k.a. tensor) product, is fundamental to the compositional, process-theoretic approach to physical theories. Promonoidal categories generalise monoidal categories by replacing the functors normally used to form joint systems with profunctors. Intuitively, this allows the formation of joint systems which may not always give a system again, but instead a generalised system given by a presheaf. This extra freedom gives a new, richer notion of joint systems that can be applied to categorical formulations of spacetime. Whereas previous formulations have relied on partial monoidal structure that is only defined on pairs of independent (i.e. spacelike separated) systems, here we give a concrete formulation of spacetime where the notion of a joint system is defined for any pair of systems as a presheaf. The representable presheaves correspond precisely to those actual systems that arise from combining spacelike systems, whereas more general presheaves correspond to virtual systems which inherit some of the logical/compositional properties of their “actual” counterparts. We show that there are two ways of doing this, corresponding roughly to relativistic versions of conjunction and disjunction. The former endows the category of spacetime slices in a Lorentzian manifold with a promonoidal structure, whereas the latter augments this structure with an (even more) generalised way to combine systems that fails the interchange law.
Transformations of transformations, also called higher-order transformations, is a natural concept in information processing, which has recently attracted significant interest in the study of quantum causal relations. In this work, a framework for characterizing higher-order quantum transformations which relies on the use of superoperator projectors is presented. More precisely, working with projectors in the Choi-Jamiolkowski picture is shown to provide a handy way of defining the characterization constraints on any class of higher-order transformations. The algebraic properties of these projectors are furthermore identified as a model of multiplicative additive linear logic (MALL). The main novelty of this work is the introduction in the algebra of the ‘prec’ connector. It is used for the characterization of maps that are no signaling from input to output or the other way around. This allows to assess the possible signaling structure of any maps characterized within the projective framework. The properties of the prec are moreover shown to yield a canonical form for projective expressions. This provides an unambiguous way to compare different higher-order theories.
11-15 July 2022 Loops ’22 Summer School on loop quantum gravity, black hole physics and general relativity at the Luminy Campus, Marseille organized by the Quantum Gravity teams of the CPT Marseille and the ENS Lyon. The Quantum Gravity teams of the CPT Marseille and the ENS Lyon are happy to welcome you to the …
The `Wigner’s friend’ thought experiment illustrates the puzzling nature of quantum measurement. Časlav Brukner discusses how recent results suggest that in quantum theory the objectivity of measurement outcomes is relative to observation and observer.
The QISS collaboration will meet in August 24-27, 2022, at the beautiful island of Lesbos for an extraordinary workshop organised at the Villa of Daphnes and Chloe, Votsala Hotel. The QISS@Lesbos workshop is particularly addressed to members of the QISS network and is by invitation only. The aim is to discuss the advances and problems identified …
A central feature of quantum metrology is the possibility of Heisenberg scaling, a quadratic improvement over the limits of classical statistics. This scaling, however, is notoriously fragile to noise. While for some noise types it can be restored through error correction, for other important types, such as dephasing, the Heisenberg scaling appears to be irremediably lost. Here we show that this limitation can sometimes be lifted if the exPerimeter Institute has the ability to probe physical processes in a coherent superposition of alternative configurations. As a concrete example, we consider the problem of phase estimation in the presence of a random phase kick, which in normal conditions is known to prevent the Heisenberg scaling. We provide a parallel protocol that achieves Heisenberg scaling with respect to the probes’ energy, as well as a sequential protocol that achieves Heisenberg scaling with respect to the total probing time. In addition, we show that Heisenberg scaling can also be achieved for frequency estimation in the presence of continuous-time dephasing noise, by combining the superposition of paths with fast control operations.
Atomic clock interferometers are a valuable tool to test the interface between quantum theory and gravity, in particular via the measurement of gravitational time dilation in the quantum regime. Here, we investigate whether gravitational time dilation may be also used as a resource in quantum information theory. In particular, we show that for a freely falling interferometer and for a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the gravitational time dilation may enhance the precision in estimating the gravitational acceleration for long interferometric times. To this aim, the interferometric measurements should be performed on both the path and the clock degrees of freedom.
We numerically estimate the divergence of several two-vertex diagrams that contribute to the radiative corrections for the Lorentzian EPRL spin foam propagator. We compute the amplitudes as functions of a homogeneous cutoff over the bulk quantum numbers, fixed boundary data, and different Immirzi parameters, and find that for a class of two-vertex diagrams, those with fewer than six internal faces are convergent. The calculations are done with the numerical framework sl2cfoam-next.