Papers New

Renormalization of conformal infinity as a stretched horizon

In this paper, we provide a comprehensive study of asymptotically flat spacetime in even dimensions $dgeq 4$. We analyze the most general boundary condition and asymptotic symmetry compatible with Penrose’s definition of asymptotic null infinity $mathscr{I}$ through conformal compactification. Following Penrose’s prescription and using a minimal version of the Bondi-Sachs gauge, we show that $mathscr{I}$ is naturally equipped with a Carrollian stress tensor whose radial derivative defines the asymptotic Weyl tensor. This analysis describes asymptotic infinity as a stretched horizon in the conformally compactified spacetime. We establish that charge aspects conservation can be written as Carrollian Bianchi identities for the asymptotic Weyl tensor. We then provide a covariant renormalization for the asymptotic symplectic potential, which results in a finite symplectic flux and asymptotic charges.

Horizons and Null Infinity: A Fugue in 4 voices

Black hole horizons in equilibrium and null infinity of asymptotically flat space-times are null 3-manifolds but have very different physical connotations. We first show that they share a large number of geometric properties, making them both weakly isolated horizons. We then use this new unified perspective to unravel the origin of the drastic differences in the physics they contain. Interestingly, the themes are woven together in a manner reminiscent of voices in a fugue.

Minimum Detection Efficiencies for Loophole-free Genuine Nonlocality Tests

The certification of quantum nonlocality, which has immense significance in architecting device-independent technologies, confronts severe experimental challenges. Detection loophole, originating from the unavailability of perfect detectors, is one of the major issues amongst them. In the present study we focus on the minimum detection efficiency (MDE) required to detect various forms of genuine nonlocality, originating from the type of causal constraints imposed on the involved parties. In this context, we demonstrate that the MDE needed to manifest the recently suggested $T_2$-type nonlocality deviates significantly from perfection. Additionally, we have computed the MDE necessary to manifest Svetlichny’s nonlocality, with state-independent approach markedly reducing the previously established bound. Finally, considering the inevitable existence of noise we demonstrate the robustness of the imperfect detectors to certify $T_2$-type nonlocality.

Carrollian $Lw_{1+infty}$ representation from twistor space

We construct an explicit realization of the action of the $Lw_{1+infty}$ loop algebra on fields at null infinity. This action is directly derived by Penrose transform of the geometrical action of $Lw_{1+infty}$ symmetries in twistor space, ensuring that it forms a representation of the algebra. Finally, we show that this action coincides with the canonical action of $Lw_{1+infty}$ Noether charges on the asymptotic phase space.

Shadow simulation of quantum processes

We introduce the task of shadow process simulation, where the goal is to reproduce the expectation values of arbitrary quantum observables at the output of a target physical process. When the sender and receiver share classical random bits, we show that the performance of shadow process simulation exceeds that of conventional process simulation protocols in a variety of scenarios including communication, noise simulation, and data compression. Remarkably, shadow simulation provides increased accuracy without any increase in the sampling cost. Overall, shadow simulation provides a unified framework for a variety of quantum protocols, including probabilistic error cancellation and circuit knitting in quantum computing.

Benchmarking Bayesian quantum estimation

The quest for precision in parameter estimation is a fundamental task in different scientific areas. The relevance of this problem thus provided the motivation to develop methods for the application of quantum resources to estimation protocols. Within this context, Bayesian estimation offers a complete framework for optimal quantum metrology techniques, such as adaptive protocols. However, the use of the Bayesian approach requires extensive computational resources, especially in the multiparameter estimations that represent the typical operational scenario for quantum sensors. Hence, the requirement to characterize protocols implementing Bayesian estimations can become a significant challenge. This work focuses on the crucial task of robustly benchmarking the performances of these protocols in both single and multiple-parameter scenarios. By comparing different figures of merits, evidence is provided in favor of using the median of the quadratic error in the estimations in order to mitigate spurious effects due to the numerical discretization of the parameter space, the presence of limited data, and numerical instabilities. These results, providing a robust and reliable characterization of Bayesian protocols, find natural applications to practical problems within the quantum estimation framework.

Lessons from discrete light-cone quantization for physics at null infinity: Bosons in two dimensions

Motivated by issues in the context of asymptotically flat spacetimes at null infinity, we discuss in the simplest example of a massless scalar field in two dimensions several subtleties that arise when setting up the canonical formulation on a single or on two intersecting null hyperplanes with a special emphasis on the infinite-dimensional global and conformal symmetries and their canonical generators, the free data, a consistent treatment of zero modes, matching conditions, and implications for quantization of massless versus massive fields.

Optimal compilation of parametrised quantum circuits

Parametrised quantum circuits contain phase gates whose phase is determined by a classical algorithm prior to running the circuit on a quantum device. Such circuits are used in variational algorithms like QAOA and VQE. In order for these algorithms to be as efficient as possible it is important that we use the fewest number of parameters. We show that, while the general problem of minimising the number of parameters is NP-hard, when we restrict to circuits that are Clifford apart from parametrised phase gates and where each parameter is used just once, we can efficiently find the optimal parameter count. We show that when parameter transformations are required to be sufficiently well-behaved that the only rewrites that reduce parameters correspond to simple ‘fusions’. Using this we find that a previous circuit optimisation strategy by some of the authors [Kissinger, van de Wetering. PRA (2019)] finds the optimal number of parameters. Our proof uses the ZX-calculus. We also prove that the standard rewrite rules of the ZX-calculus suffice to prove any equality between parametrised Clifford circuits.

Remote sensing of a levitated superconductor with a flux-tunable microwave cavity

We present a cavity-electromechanical system comprising a superconducting quantum interference device which is embedded in a microwave resonator and coupled via a pick-up loop to a 6 $mu$g magnetically-levitated superconducting sphere. The motion of the sphere in the magnetic trap induces a frequency shift in the SQUID-cavity system. We use microwave spectroscopy to characterize the system, and we demonstrate that the electromechanical interaction is tunable. The measured displacement sensitivity of $10^{-7} , mathrm{m} / sqrt{mathrm{Hz}}$, defines a path towards ground-state cooling of levitated particles with Planck-scale masses at millikelvin environment temperatures.

Measurement events relative to temporal quantum reference frames

The Page-Wootters formalism is a proposal for reconciling the background-dependent, quantum-mechanical notion of time with the background independence of general relativity. However, there has been much discussion regarding the physical meaning of the framework. In this work, we compare two consistent approaches to the Page-Wootters formalism to clarify the operational meaning of evolution and measurements with respect to a quantum temporal reference frame. The so-called “twirled observable” approach implements measurements as operators that are invariant with respect to the Hamiltonian constraint. The “purified measurement” approach instead models measurements dynamically by modifying the constraint itself. While both approaches agree in the limit of ideal clocks, a natural generalization of the purified measurement approach to the case of non-ideal, finite-resource clocks yields a radically different picture. We discuss the physical origin of this discrepancy and argue that they describe operationally distinct situations. Moreover, we show that, for non-ideal clocks, the purified measurement approach yields time non-local, non-unitary evolution and implies a fundamental limitation to the operational definition of the temporal order of events. Nevertheless, unitarity and definite temporal order can be restored if we assume that time is discrete.