January 2024

Shadow simulation of quantum processes

We introduce the task of shadow process simulation, where the goal is to reproduce the expectation values of arbitrary quantum observables at the output of a target physical process. When the sender and receiver share classical random bits, we show that the performance of shadow process simulation exceeds that of conventional process simulation protocols in a variety of scenarios including communication, noise simulation, and data compression. Remarkably, shadow simulation provides increased accuracy without any increase in the sampling cost. Overall, shadow simulation provides a unified framework for a variety of quantum protocols, including probabilistic error cancellation and circuit knitting in quantum computing.

Benchmarking Bayesian quantum estimation

The quest for precision in parameter estimation is a fundamental task in different scientific areas. The relevance of this problem thus provided the motivation to develop methods for the application of quantum resources to estimation protocols. Within this context, Bayesian estimation offers a complete framework for optimal quantum metrology techniques, such as adaptive protocols. However, the use of the Bayesian approach requires extensive computational resources, especially in the multiparameter estimations that represent the typical operational scenario for quantum sensors. Hence, the requirement to characterize protocols implementing Bayesian estimations can become a significant challenge. This work focuses on the crucial task of robustly benchmarking the performances of these protocols in both single and multiple-parameter scenarios. By comparing different figures of merits, evidence is provided in favor of using the median of the quadratic error in the estimations in order to mitigate spurious effects due to the numerical discretization of the parameter space, the presence of limited data, and numerical instabilities. These results, providing a robust and reliable characterization of Bayesian protocols, find natural applications to practical problems within the quantum estimation framework.

Lessons from discrete light-cone quantization for physics at null infinity: Bosons in two dimensions

Motivated by issues in the context of asymptotically flat spacetimes at null infinity, we discuss in the simplest example of a massless scalar field in two dimensions several subtleties that arise when setting up the canonical formulation on a single or on two intersecting null hyperplanes with a special emphasis on the infinite-dimensional global and conformal symmetries and their canonical generators, the free data, a consistent treatment of zero modes, matching conditions, and implications for quantization of massless versus massive fields.

Optimal compilation of parametrised quantum circuits

Parametrised quantum circuits contain phase gates whose phase is determined by a classical algorithm prior to running the circuit on a quantum device. Such circuits are used in variational algorithms like QAOA and VQE. In order for these algorithms to be as efficient as possible it is important that we use the fewest number of parameters. We show that, while the general problem of minimising the number of parameters is NP-hard, when we restrict to circuits that are Clifford apart from parametrised phase gates and where each parameter is used just once, we can efficiently find the optimal parameter count. We show that when parameter transformations are required to be sufficiently well-behaved that the only rewrites that reduce parameters correspond to simple ‘fusions’. Using this we find that a previous circuit optimisation strategy by some of the authors [Kissinger, van de Wetering. PRA (2019)] finds the optimal number of parameters. Our proof uses the ZX-calculus. We also prove that the standard rewrite rules of the ZX-calculus suffice to prove any equality between parametrised Clifford circuits.