May 2020

Predictions of quantum gravity in inflationary cosmology: effects of the Weyl-squared term

We derive the predictions of quantum gravity with fakeons on the amplitudes and spectral indices of the scalar and tensor fluctuations in inflationary cosmology. The action is $R+R^{2}$ plus the Weyl-squared term. The ghost is eliminated by turning it into a fakeon, that is to say a purely virtual particle. We work to the next-to-leading order of the expansion around the de Sitter background. The consistency of the approach puts a lower bound ($ m_{chi }>m_{phi }/4$) on the mass $m_{chi }$ of the fakeon with respect to the mass $m_{phi }$ of the inflaton. The tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ is predicted within less than an order of magnitude ($4/3

The Multi-round Process Matrix

We develop an extension of the process matri(PM) framework for correlations between quantum operations with no causal order that allows multiple rounds of information exchange for each party compatibly with the assumption of well-defined causal order of events locally. We characterise the higher-order process describing such correlations, which we name the multi-round process matri(MPM), and formulate a notion of causal nonseparability for it that extends the one for standard PMs. We show that in the multi-round case there are novel manifestations of causal nonseparability that are not captured by a naive application of the standard PM formalism: we exhibit an instance of an operator that is both a valid PM and a valid MPM, but is causally separable in the first case and can violate causal inequalities in the second case due to the possibility of using a side channel.

Quantum and Classical Data Transmission through Completely Depolarising Channels in a Superposition of Cyclic Orders

Completely depolarising channels are often regarded as the prototype of physical processes that are useless for communication: any message that passes through them along a well-defined trajectory is completely erased. When two such channels are used in a quantum superposition of two alternative orders, they become able to transmit some amount of classical information, but still no quantum information can pass through them. Here we show that the ability to place N completely depolarising channels in a superposition of N alternative causal orders enables a high-fidelity, heralded transmission of quantum information with error vanishing as 1/N. This phenomenon highlights a fundamental difference with the N = 2 case, where completely depolarising channels are unable to transmit quantum data, even when placed in a superposition of causal orders. The ability to place quantum channels in a superposition of orders also leads to an increase of the classical communication capacity with N, which we rigorously prove by deriving an exact single-letter expression. Our results highlight the more complepatterns of correlations arising from multiple causal orders, which are similar to the more complepatterns of entanglement arising in multipartite quantum systems.