October 2023

Borivoje Dakić
University of ViennaReconstruction of Quantum Particle Statistics: Bosons, Fermions, and Transtatistics

Identical quantum particles exhibit only two types of statistics: bosonic and fermionic. Theoretically, this restriction is commonly established through the symmetrization postulate or (anti)commutation constraints imposed on the algebra of creation and annihilation operators. The physical motivation for these axioms remains poorly understood, leading to various generalizations by modifying the mathematical formalism in somewhat arbitrary …

Borivoje Dakić
University of ViennaReconstruction of Quantum Particle Statistics: Bosons, Fermions, and Transtatistics
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Quantum Nonlocality: Multi-copy Resource Inter-convertibility & Their Asymptotic Inequivalence

Quantum nonlocality, pioneered in Bell’s seminal work and subsequently verified through a series of experiments, has drawn substantial attention due to its practical applications in various protocols. Evaluating and comparing the extent of nonlocality within distinct quantum correlations holds significant practical relevance. Within the resource theoretic framework this can be achieved by assessing the inter-conversion rate among different nonlocal correlations under free local operations and shared randomness. In this study we, however, present instances of quantum nonlocal correlations that are incomparable in the strongest sense. Specifically, when starting with an arbitrary many copies of one nonlocal correlation, it becomes impossible to obtain even a single copy of the other correlation, and this incomparability holds in both directions. Remarkably, these incomparable quantum correlations can be obtained even in the simplest Bell scenario, which involves two parties, each having two dichotomic measurements setups. Notably, there exist an uncountable number of such incomparable correlations. Our result challenges the notion of a ‘unique gold coin’, often referred to as the ‘maximally resourceful state’, within the framework of the resource theory of quantum nonlocality, which has nontrivial implications in the study of nonlocality distillation.

Virtual quantum broadcasting

The quantum no-broadcasting theorem states that it is impossible to produce perfect copies of an arbitrary quantum state, even if the copies are allowed to be correlated. Here we show that, although quantum broadcasting cannot be achieved by any physical process, it can be achieved by a virtual process, described by a Hermitian-preserving trace-preserving map. This virtual process is canonical: it is the only map that broadcasts all quantum states, is covariant under unitary evolution, is invariant under permutations of the copies, and reduces to the classical broadcasting map when subjected to decoherence. We show that the optimal physical approximation to the canonical broadcasting map is the optimal universal quantum cloning, and we also show that virtual broadcasting can be achieved by a virtual measure-and-prepare protocol, where a virtual measurement is performed, and, depending on the outcomes, two copies of a virtual quantum state are generated. Finally, we use canonical virtual broadcasting to prove a uniqueness result for quantum states over time.

Learning and Discovering Quantum Properties with Multi-Task Neural Networks

Deep neural networks are a powerful tool for predicting properties of quantum states from limited measurement data. Here we develop a network model that can simultaneously predict multiple quantum properties, including not only expectation values of quantum observables, but also general nonlinear functions of the quantum state, like entanglement entropies and many-body topological invariants. Remarkably, we find that a model trained on a given set of properties can also discover new properties outside that set. Multi-purpose training also enables the model to infer global properties of many-body quantum systems from local measurements, to classify symmetry protected topological phases of matter, and to discover unknown boundaries between different phases.

Spacetime geometry from canonical spherical gravity

We study covariant models for vacuum spherical gravity within a canonical setting. Starting from a general ansatz, we derive the most general family of Hamiltonian constraints that are quadratic in first-order and linear in second-order spatial derivatives of the triad variables, and obey certain specific covariance conditions. These conditions ensure that the dynamics generated by such family univocally defines a spacetime geometry, independently of gauge or coordinates choices. This analysis generalizes the Hamiltonian constraint of general relativity, though keeping intact the covariance of the theory, and leads to a rich variety of new geometries. We find that the resulting geometries depend on seven free functions of one scalar variable, and we study their generic features. By construction, there are no propagating degrees of freedom in the theory. However, we also show that it is possible to add matter to the system by simply following the usual minimal-coupling prescription, which leads to novel models to describe dynamical scenarios.

Interaction of evanescent particles with an Unruh-DeWitt detector

We demonstrate that the recently introduced evanescent particles of a massive scalar field can be emitted and absorbed by an Unruh-DeWitt detector. In doing so the particles carry away from or deposit on the detector a quantized amount of energy, in a manner quite analogous to ordinary propagating particles. In contradistinction to propagating particles the amount of energy is less than the mass of the field, but still positive. We develop relevant methods and provide a study of the detector emission spectrum, emission probability and absorption probability involving both propagating and evanescent particles.

Algebras and Hilbert spaces from gravitational path integrals: Understanding Ryu-Takayanagi/HRT as entropy without invoking holography

Recent works by Chandrasekaran, Penington, and Witten have shown in various special contexts that the quantum-corrected Ryu-Takayanagi (RT) entropy (or its covariant Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) generalization) can be understood as computing an entropy on an algebra of bulk observables. These arguments do not rely on the existence of a holographic dual field theory. We show that analogous-but-stronger results hold in any UV-completion of asymptotically anti-de Sitter quantum gravity with a Euclidean path integral satisfying a simple and familiar set of axioms. We consider a quantum context in which a standard Lorentz-signature classical bulk limit would have Cauchy slices with asymptotic boundaries $B_L sqcup B_R$ where both $B_L$ and $B_R$ are compact manifolds without boundary. Our main result is then that (the UV-completion of) the quantum gravity path integral defines type I von Neumann algebras ${cal A}^{B_L}_L$, ${cal A}^{B_R}_{R}$ of observables acting respectively at $B_L$, $B_R$ such that ${cal A}^{B_L}_L$, ${cal A}^{B_R}_{R}$ are commutants. The path integral also defines entropies on ${cal A}^{B_L}_L, {cal A}^{B_R}_R$. Positivity of the Hilbert space inner product then turns out to require the entropy of any projection operator to be quantized in the form $ln N$ for some $N in {mathbb Z}^+$ (unless it is infinite). As a result, our entropies can be written in terms of standard density matrices and standard Hilbert space traces. Furthermore, in appropriate semiclassical limits our entropies are computed by the RT-formula with quantum corrections. Our work thus provides a Hilbert space interpretation of the RT entropy. Since our axioms do not severely constrain UV bulk structures, they may be expected to hold equally well for successful formulations of string field theory, spin-foam models, or any other approach to constructing a UV-complete theory of gravity.

Observable Thermalization: Theory, Numerical and Analytical Evidence

Predicting whether an observable will dynamically evolve to thermal equilibrium in an isolated quantum system is an important open problem, as it determines the applicability of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The Observable Thermalization framework has been proposed as a solution, characterizing observables that thermalize using an observable-specific maximum entropy principle. In this paper, we achieve three results. First, we confirm the dynamical relaxation of local observables towards maximum entropy, in a 1D Ising chain. Second, we provide the most general solution to the maximization problem and numerically verify some general predictions about equilibrium behavior in the same model. Third, we explore the emergence and physical meaning of an observable-specific notion of energy. Our results mark significant progress towards a fully predictive theory of thermalization in isolated quantum systems and open interesting questions about observable-specific thermodynamic quantities.

Comparing coherent and incoherent models for quantum homogenization

Here we investigate the role of quantum interference in the quantum homogenizer, whose convergence properties model a thermalization process. In the original quantum homogenizer protocol, a system qubit converges to the state of identical reservoir qubits through partial-swap interactions, that allow interference between reservoir qubits. We design an alternative, incoherent quantum homogenizer, where each system-reservoir interaction is moderated by a control qubit using a controlled-swap interaction. We show that our incoherent homogenizer satisfies the essential conditions for homogenization, being able to transform a qubit from any state to any other state to arbitrary accuracy, with negligible impact on the reservoir qubits’ states. Our results show that the convergence properties of homogenization machines that are important for modelling thermalization are not dependent on coherence between qubits in the homogenization protocol. We then derive bounds on the resources required to re-use the homogenizers for performing state transformations. This demonstrates that both homogenizers are universal for any number of homogenizations, for an increased resource cost.

Gravity Mediated Entanglement between Oscillators as Quantum Superposition of Geometries

Protocols for observing gravity induced entanglement typically comprise the interaction of two particles prepared either in a superposition of two discrete paths, or in a continuously delocalized (harmonic oscillator) state of motion. An important open question has been whether these two different approaches allow to draw the same conclusions on the quantum nature of gravity. To answer this question, we analyse using the path-integral approach a setup that contains both features: a superposition of two highly delocalized center of mass states. We conclude that the two usual protocols are of similar epistemological relevance. In both cases the appearance of entanglement, within linearised quantum gravity, is due to gravity being in a highly non-classical state: a superposition of distinct geometries.