August 2020

Probabilistic storage and retrieval of qubit phase gates

Probabilistic storage and retrieval (PSR) of unitary quantum dynamics is possible with exponentially small failure probability with respect to the number of systems used as a quantum memory [PRL 122, 170502 (2019)]. Here we study improvements due to a priori knowledge about the unitary transformation to be stored. In particular, we study $N rightarrow 1$ PSR of qubit phase gates, i.e. qubit rotations a round $Z$ axis with an unknown angle, and show that if we access the gate only $N$-times, the optimal probability of perfect retrieving of its single use is $N/(N+1)$. We propose a quantum circuit realization for the optimal protocol and show that programmable phase gate [PRL 88, 047905 (2002)] can be turned into $(2^k-1)rightarrow 1$ optimal PSR of phase gates and requires only $k$ CNOT gates, while having exponentially small failure probability in $k$.

Phase transition of the four-dimensional cross-polytope model

Thermodynamic properties of the four-dimensional cross-polytope model, the 16-cell model, which is an example of higher dimensional generalizations of the octahedron model, are studied on the square lattice. By means of the corner transfer matrirenormalization group (CTMRG) method, presence of the first-order phase transition is confirmed. The latent heat is estimated to be $L_4^{~} = 0.3172$, which is larger than that of the octahedron model $L_3^{~} = 0.0516$. The result suggests that the latent heat increases with the internal dimension $n$ when the higher-dimensional series of the cross-polytope models is considered.

Relativistic Bell Test within Quantum Reference Frames

A still widely debated question in the field of relativistic quantum information is whether entanglement and the degree of violation of Bell’s inequalities for massive relativistic particles are frame independent or not. At the core of this question is the effect that spin gets entangled with the momentum degree of freedom at relativistic velocities. Here, we show that Bell’s inequalities for a pair of particles can be maximally violated in a special-relativistic regime, even without any post-selection of the momentum of the particles. To this end, we use the methodology of quantum reference frames, which allows us to transform the problem to the rest frame of a particle, whose state can be in a superposition of relativistic momenta from the viewpoint of the laboratory frame. We show that, when the relative motion of two particles is non-collinear, the optimal measurements for violation of Bell’s inequalities in the laboratory frame involve “coherent Wigner rotations”. Moreover, the degree of violation of Bell’s inequalities is independent of the choice of the quantum reference frame. Our results open up the possibility of extending entanglement-based quantum communication protocols to relativistic regimes.

Quantum superposition of thermodynamic evolutions with opposing time’s arrows

Microscopic physical laws are time-symmetric, hence, a priori there exists no preferential temporal direction. However, the second law of thermodynamics allows one to associate the “forward” temporal direction to a positive variation of the total entropy produced in a thermodynamic process, and a negative variation with its “time-reversal” counterpart. This definition of a temporal axis is normally considered to apply in both classical and quantum contexts. Yet, quantum physics admits also superpositions between forward and time-reversal processes, whereby the thermodynamic arrow of time becomes quantum-mechanically undefined. In this work, we demonstrate that a definite thermodynamic time’s arrow can be restored by a quantum measurement of entropy production, which effectively projects such superpositions onto the forward (time-reversal) time-direction when large positive (negative) values are measured. Remarkably, for small values (of the order of plus or minus one), the amplitudes of forward and time-reversal processes can interfere, giving rise to entropy-production distributions featuring a more or less reversible process than either of the two components individually, or any classical mixture thereof.