## Quantum diffeomorphisms cannot make indefinite causal order definite

The study of indefinite causal order has seen rapid development, both theoretically and experimentally, in recent years. While classically the causal order of two timelike separated events A and B is fixed – either A before B or B before A – this is no longer true in quantum theory. There, it is possible to encounter superpositions of causal orders. In light of recent work on quantum reference frames, which reveals that the superposition of locations, momenta, and other properties can depend on the choice of reference frame or coordinate system, the question arises whether this also holds true for superpositions of causal orders. Here, we provide a negative answer to this question for quantum diffeomorphisms. First, we provide an unambiguous definition of causal order between two events in terms of worldline coincidences and the proper time of a third particle. Then, we show that superpositions of causal order defined as such cannot be rendered definite even through the most general class of coordinate transformations – quantum-controlled, independent diffeomorphisms in each branch. Finally, based on our results, we connect the information theoretic and gravitational perspectives on indefinite causal order.